By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current learn presents an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it's spoken through nearly 30,000 humans, consisting as a rule of the ethnic staff of the Idaksahak who're residing within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted locations in western Niger. The publication is split into 4 chapters giving an entire evaluate: the 1st brief bankruptcy presents information regarding the heritage of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological positive aspects of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it's proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. moreover, any verb root that's of Songhay foundation is suppleted while derived and a semantic identical of Tamasheq beginning takes its position. one other non-Songhay function matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization process used is determined by the etymology of the time period, a characteristic paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and provides kinds of noun words. furthermore, the different sorts of straightforward clauses are handled in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization options also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions whilst derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
Cí bb-ǝddǝr₌a Who is married to her? 8 Word-final V-shortening In word-final position the contrast of vowel length is neutralized. The following examples illustrate this point. Adding the plural morpheme permits the realization of what could be considered an underlying long V: (37) Word final V-shortening V singular I bitígi E A U O ħáaʃi fǝṛḍǝḍḍé íizace tǝgna kǝrtǝba heebú bukturú kádago aróoko plural bitigíitan ħáaʃitan fǝṛḍǝḍḍéetan izácenan tǝgnáatin kǝrtǝbatan heebúutan bukturútan kadagóotan aróokotan gloss shop (< Fr ‘boutique’) bone (kind of) bat youth reproach trousers marketplace toad tree, sp.
The voiceless/voiced distinction of the labials is realized as /b/ versus /f/. This is evident from the IMPERF prefix b- that assimilates in voicing to f- if the following C of the verb root is voiceless. 2). g. g. Fr. porte-monnaie ‘purse’ becomes fartǝmáani, and Fr. projet ‘project’ is pronounced faróʒe. 2 Plosives The only plosives that have restrictions in distribution are the affricates c [ʧ] and j [ʤ]. We have no evidence of them in word-final or syllable-final position, except when they are part of a geminated consonant, as for example in hijjí ‘piston’.
Fat (kind of) to wither chick, sp. town to give to fall mom (vocative) to have a fever yaayén arwén yáw dǝbǝt ámdaɣ yéd yírmaɣ yíɣrǝf téefart áʒwar labás éelaw díidi tǝdícan áwwud báaɣa aɣǝɣi ámɣar yíkṛǝm éefaṛa fákaṛ náani takánnart adínit éeʃan wǝnǝnǝg aláweg áɣraw ŋa kan áaṇa yaṇǝṇ 13 freshness, pl men female camel to be able to giraffe to return to be afraid to span (drum) recompense jujube fruit to be dangerous elephant to trample tent posts boil (n) to want / to love crevice old person to rest (animals) wind from south to reveal here (it) is!