By Tony Barnett, Alan Whiteside (auth.)
Essential examining for social and scientific scientists and all these drawn to infectious illnesses and public health and wellbeing, AIDS and the Twenty-First Century examines the social and fiscal origins and affects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV/AIDS is not just a clinical challenge. it really is a sign of the size of the worldwide challenge in public overall healthiness. Accessibly written, this publication is important analyzing for policymakers, scholars and all people who are fascinated by the connection among poverty, inequality and infectious diseases.
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Additional info for AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization
1 If, as is feared, this phenomenon is generalised, then the threat from the epidemic is as great in the future as it is in the present. s:: 0.. 2 Source: Death Opportunistic 1 diseases + 4 5 6 7 8 Years Viral load and CD4 cell counts over time Whiteside and Sunter (2000), p. 9. 9 10 11 1/8 1/4 1/2 I The Disease and its Epidemiology 33 Development and use of anti-retroviral therapies creates new problems: • the virus mutates, there are over 120 sites in its structures which can mutate, and 'with hundreds of millions of virus particles being produced daily, it is not difficult to see how readily mutations occur which give rise to a wide range of biological variants even within the same individual' (Schoub, 1999, p.
Overall, the most striking feature about the global epidemiology of HIV-2 is its lack of epidemic spread internationally' (De Cock and Brun-Vezinet, 1996). Viruses have been defined as 'a piece of nucleic acid surrounded by bad news' (Oldstone, 1998, p. 8). They are genetic material covered with a coat of protein molecules. They do not have cell walls, are parasitic, and can only replicate by entering host cells. The genetic material of viruses is commonly DNA, or less frequently RNA. Viruses have few genes compared with other organisms: HIV has fewer than 10 genes (as does Ebola and measles); smallpox has between 200 and 400 genes.
4. Single drug therapy is no longer used much because it causes fairly swift mutation of the virus into drug resistant strains. Dual therapy is cheaper than triple therapy, but the antiviral effect is less immediate as the viral load falls slowly and the viral control may be of a limited duration. Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) is any anti-retroviral regimen capable of suppressing HIV for many months and perhaps years in a significant number of individuals. Such is the case with triple therapy.