By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a state-of-the-art file due to the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The record summarises examine so far within the zone of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific concentrate on the next parts: binder layout and characterisation, sturdiness trying out, commercialisation, standardisation, and delivering a ancient context for this rapidly-growing examine field.
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Extra info for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
This is thus the key outcome of the discussion of ancient and modern cements in the context of this Report; it is possible to draw implications related to the durability of modern cements from the analysis of certain ancient materials, and these trends appear to comment favourably upon the inherent chemical durability of aluminosilicate-based (as opposed to calcium silicate-based) binders. % Na2Oeq) are sufficiently restrictive . The presence of alkalis in Portland cement, either as a high-alkali clinker or as NaOH in the mix water, has also been shown to influence mechanical, elastic, and various other properties of the resulting concretes in a generally (but not uniformly) deleterious manner, and can reduce shrinkage .
This necessitates care in the handling and storage of such solutions; the stockpiling of silicate solutions for extended periods prior to use (either in laboratory experiments or in larger-scale production runs) can lead to unexpected and/or unfavourable outcomes. Similar issues are not generally encountered with potassium silicate solutions, as the precipitation of hydrated potassium silicate phases is much less prevalent than in the sodium case, and the stability range of the homogeneous aqueous solution is much wider.
The full phase diagram for this system has never in fact been determined, mainly due to the predominance of metastable aqueous silicate solutions which, if they will ever precipitate, will do so very slowly . This is highlighted by the observation that in the table of ‘typical commercial sodium silicates’ given by Weldes and Lange , all of the compositions given for common sodium silicate solutions actually fall in the region of the phase diagram in which precipitation of Na2SiO3·9H2O would be expected.