By Michael W. Whittle BSc MSc MB BS PhD
Gait research is the systematic research of human strolling. lots of the literature during this box is very really good and intensely technical. This ebook, although, goals to brings gait research out of the 'ivory tower' of the learn laboratory, and to place it the place it belongs, within the 'real global' of the sanatorium. the writer has maintained the transparent and approachable variety that tested the 1st 3 editions.Highly readable, the publication builds upon the fundamentals of anatomy, body structure and biomechanics.Describes either common and pathological gait.Covers the variety of tools to be had to accomplish gait research, from the extremely simple to the very complex.Emphasizes the scientific purposes of gait analysis.Fully up to date all through New bankruptcy at the use of gait research within the administration of cerebral palsyIncludes a CD-Rom, containing movies and lively skeletons of standard gait and three matters with cerebral palsy
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Gait Analysis, 4th Ed.
One normally thinks of a muscle shortening as it contracts – a concentric contraction. However, it is quite usual, particularly in gait, for a muscle to produce tension while it is lengthening – an eccentric contraction. For example, the quadriceps undergoes an eccentric contraction as you sit down. The muscle which is responsible for a particular action is known as an agonist. If two or more muscles act together, they are known as synergists; muscles which oppose agonists are known as antagonists.
When a muscle is stretched, stretch receptors within it are stimulated, sending nerve impulses to the spinal cord along fast sensory neurons. Within the cord, these neurons synapse with and stimulate the lower motor neurons of the same muscle, causing it to contract. The stretch receptors are within the muscle spindles and attached to very small intrafusal muscle ﬁbers, which are innervated by thin, relatively slow gamma motor neurons. These adjust the length of the spindle as the main muscle contracts and relaxes, so that it continues to work over the complete range of muscle lengths.
For example, the quadriceps undergoes an eccentric contraction as you sit down. The muscle which is responsible for a particular action is known as an agonist. If two or more muscles act together, they are known as synergists; muscles which oppose agonists are known as antagonists. As a general rule, contraction of one set of muscles results in reciprocal inhibition of opposing muscles. Muscle atrophy is the term used to describe the loss of bulk and strength of a muscle when it is not used. qxp 9/26/06 10:00 AM Page 29 BASIC SCIENCES become smaller but their numbers remain the same and subsequent restoration of muscle stimulation will lead to a full recovery of function.