Tony Penston's A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers PDF

By Tony Penston

A Concise Grammar for English Language lecturers - это новая редакция очень популярной грамматики A Grammar path for TEFL certificates. Эта книга является, пожалуй, единственно действительно удобной грамматикой для преподавателей английского языка .... находка для тех, кто раньше «боялся» английской грамматики. Ясно и четко рассматривает проблемные моменты, с которыми обычно сталкиваются учителя, например, распознавание времен и их употребление, условия, вспомогательные глаголы, относительные предложения и т.д.
Включает в себя множество заметок к преподаванию с практическими рекомендациями, а также раздел, посвященный анализу и коррекции ошибок, демонстрирует использование доски и парной-работы. Если вы совершенствуете свой английский самостоятельно или на заочных курсах - это пособие будет очень полезным для вас.

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Extra resources for A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers

Example text

In English, if the verb and the object following it make up one constituent, it ought to be possible to delete them and leave the second object behind. ) There seems to be no evidence for a rule treating the verb and the direct object as one constituent in Ancient Nordic, and Antonsen's reading can therefore not be supported on syntactic grounds. Gr0nvik (1981: 143, 1984: 70) suggests that the final ;-rune may not represent another constituent in that sentence. In Gr0nvik (1990: 287) he suggests that it might represent the past tense of a verb *jehan 'give, entrust', which introduces the sentence following.

Nevertheless, in a diachronic perspective it is quite futile. Linguistic change is an event, and as such it is connected to other events or conditions (which may or may not deserve the labels of "cause" and "effects"). Those events or conditions have to have some kind of existence, physical, mental, cognitive, cultural, or social. Each of the other two theses on the localization of language has its own consequences and implications for the interpretation of linguistic change. On the strict mentalist thesis, the grammatical system is physically situated in the brains of speakers; no two speakers share the same grammar, and hence there are as many languages in the world as there are speakers.

Since both SVO and SOV are called "basic", it is clear that "basic word order" cannot be taken to mean either the most unmarked or The data 21 the statistically most frequent order. It can therefore only mean the deepstructure order. But this entails the claim that there are two randomly distributed orders in the deep structure. Even more bizarre is the use of statistics to establish the deep structure. The scarcity of attested sentences and the total randomness of the corpus of course gives us no basis whatsoever for concluding anything about the actual relative frequency of the sentence types in Ancient Nordic, or even in the total amount of runic inscripions written during that period.

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